# Acceleration forces during transport

## Regupol® Anti-Slip Mats

The dangers resulting from incorrectly secured loads are frequently underestimated. The acceleration forces under normal traffic conditions reach levels approaching the actual weight of the load.

The friction force FF of an anti-slip mat therefore counteracts any displacement of the load and is described in physical terms as follows:

FF = μ x FG (friction force)
FG = weight
µ = sliding friction coefficient
m = mass
g = gravitational acceleration
FG = m x g

The difference between inertia force FM and friction force FF is known as securing force FR:

FR= Fx,y - F

The securing force FR is the force that the securing equipment has to absorb in a forwards direction.

Loads are secured correctly by achieving a balance between the opposing forces occurring during transport.

The loads are adequately secured when the sum of the friction force FF and the securing force FR is at least as large as the inertia force FM.

The friction force is increased by anti-slip mats, the securing force by lashing straps and other equipment.

As the weight acting in a forwards direction when the truck brakes can reach up to 80% of the load weight (0.8 g), the load must be secured accordingly.

### Load securing = friction force + securing force

The load only has to be secured for normal driving, not for a traffic accident. Normal driving also includes emergency braking, drastic avoidance manoeuvres and poor road surfaces.

The following forces can occur in normal driving:

• maximum 0.8 g in the direction of travel, corresponding to 80% of the load weight
• maximum 0.5 g to the sides, corresponding to 50% of the load weight
• maximum 0.5 g to the rear, corresponding to 50% of the load weight

## Example: ascertaining the preload force with and without anti-slip mats

For a preload force of 500 daN per lashing strap, altogether 40 lashing straps are needed here without anti-slip mats. When anti-slip mats are used to increase the sliding friction coefficient to μ 0.6, this reduces the number of lashing straps to 5.